Bioss offers over 11,000 different primary antibodies. A primary antibody is an immunoglobulin that binds specifically to a particular protein or molecule of interest for the purpose of purifying or detecting and measuring it. We offer both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised in rabbit, mouse, and goat. Polyclonal antibodies are able to recognize multiple epitopes on and antigen, making them more tolerant of minor changes in the antigen sequence. Monoclonal antibodies are made to be specific to a single epitope and can provide a stable long term supply when produced by hybridomas in vitro. Our primary antibodies are also made available conjugated to various fluorescent dyes, HRP, or Biotin.
Secondary Antibodies are used for indirect detection of target antigens. Bioss offers a wide variety of both conjugated and unconjugated secondary antibodies that can be used for fluorescent, colorimetric, and chemiluminescent detection of primary antibody in a wide range of applications. Using a secondary antibody provides increased sensitivity through signal amplification and allows for greater flexibility for labeling and detection.
Isotype controls are primary antibodies that lack specificity to a target, however they match the class and type of the primary antibody being used. Isotype controls are used as negative controls to help distinguish nonspecific background signal from specific antibody signal. When selecting an isotype control you should match the antibody's host species and class. If using a primary conjugated antibody, it is important to use the same conjugation for the isotype control.