|Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) mediate NADP+-dependent oxidation of aldehydes into acids during the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde; metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines and neurotransmitters; and lipid peroxidation. ALDH1A1, also designated retinal dehydrogenase 1 (RalDH1 or RALDH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1, aldehyde dehydrogenase cytosolic, ALDHII, ALDH-E1 or ALDH E1, is a retinal dehydrogenase that participates in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid (RA). There are two major liver isoforms of ALDH1 that can localize to cytosolic or mitochondrial space. The ALDH1A2 (RALDH2, RALDH2-T) gene produces three different transcripts and also catalyzes the synthesis of RA from retinaldehyde. ALDH1A3 (ALDH6, RALDH3, ALDH1A6) is a 37 kb gene that consists of 13 exons and produces a major transcript of approximately 3.5 kb most abundant in salivary gland, stomach and kidney. ALDH3A1 (stomach type, ALDH3, ALDHIII) forms a cytoplasmic homodimer that preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. ALDH genes upregulate as a part of the oxidative stress response, and appear to be abundant in certain tumors that have an accelerated metabolism toward chemotherapy agents.