Principle of the Assay
This assay employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. A monoclonal antibody specific for TNF-α has been pre-coated onto a microplate. Standard, control, or sample and the working solution of Biotin-Conjugate are pipetted into the wells. Following incubation and wash steps, any TNF-α present is bound by the immobilized antibody and the detection antibody specific for TNF-α is binds to the combination of capture antibody-TNF-α in sample. Following a wash to remove any unbound combination, and enzyme conjugate is added to the wells. Following incubation and wash steps a substrate is added. A coloured product is formed in proportion to the amount of TNF-α present in the sample. The reaction is terminated by addition of acid and absorbance is measured at 450nm. A standard curve is prepared from seven TNF-α standard dilutions and TNF-α sample concentration determined.
For Use with serum, plasma and cell culture supernatants. For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-α is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types. Human TNF-α consists of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 177 aa extracellular domain (ECD). Within the ECD, human TNF-α shares 97% aa sequence identity with rhesus and 71% - 92% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat TNF-α. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer. Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte costimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness.
Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-α by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-α. TNF-α trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers. TNF-α regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis. It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages. TNF-α is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders. It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism.
|Kit Components||96 Wells Quantity/Size|
|Aluminium pouches with a Microwell Plate coated with antibody to Swine TNF-α (8-12)||1 plate|
|Swine TNF-α standard lyophilized, 2000pg/ml upon reconstitution||2 vials|
|Concentrated Biotin-Conjugate anti-Swine TNF-α antibody||2 vials|
|Streptavidin-HRP solution||2 vials|
|Standard /sample Diluent||1 bottle|
|Biotin-Conjugate antibody Diluent||1 bottle|
|Streptavidin-HRP Diluent||1 bottle|
|Wash Buffer Concentrate 20x (PBS with 1% Tween-20)||1 bottle|
|Substrate Solution||1 vial|
|Stop Solution||1 vial|
|Adhesive Films||4 pieces|
|Product data sheet||1 copy|
|Storage||Store at 2 - 8°C|
|REPEATABILITY||The coefficient of variation of both intra-assay and inter-assay were less than 10%.|
|SENSITIVITY||The minimum detectable dose was 15pg/mL.|
|ASSAY RANGE||31.25 - 2000 pg/mL|
|SPECIFICITY||This assay recognizes both natural and recombinant Swine TNF-α. The factors listed below were prepared at 70ng/ml in standard /sample Diluent and assayed for cross-reactivity and no significant cross-reactivity or interference was observed.|
Factors assayed for cross-reactivity
|Recombinant human||TNF-β, GM-CSF, s TNF RI, s TNF RII, s TNF RII/Fc|
|Recombinant mouse||TNF-α（truncated, s TNF RI, s TNF RII IL-4|
Data Analysis Assistance
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