|Dyrk (for dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase) is the homolog of the Drosophila mnb (minibrain) gene which is required for neurogenesis. Dyrk is a dual-specificity tyrosine kinase and serine/threonine kinase, which is itself regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Several mammalian Dyrk related proteins have been identified and are thought to compose a family of dual specificity protein kinases. Dyrk family members, including Dyrk1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A), Dyrk1B, Dyrk1C, Dyrk2, Dyrk3, Dyrk4A and Dyrk4B, are thought to be involved in diverse cellular functions. Localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in testis, muscle and the developing nervous system, Dyrk1A, also known as MNB or MNBH, functions to phosphorylate serine, threonine and tyrosine residues on various substrates involved in signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation. Dyrk1A is a candidate gene for learning defects that are involved in Downs syndrome (DS), suggesting a possible role for Dyrk1A in the development of DS. Four isoforms of Dyrk1A exist due to alternative splicing events.