|The LIM domain (a zinc finger structure) is a protein-protein interaction motif found in several protein types, including homeodomain transcription factors and kinases, which has a role in many cellular processes. The LIM family of homeodomain proteins plays a role in organismal differentiation and development. Specifically, LHX4 and closely related LHX3 play essential roles in multiple developmental stages of the pituitary gland in mice. The LHX4 gene is expressed in murine fetal brain, spinal cord and cerebral cortex. In addition, LHX4 is expressed in the cerebral cortex and in the motor neurons of the CNS in adult rodents. A specific murine LHX4 gene mutation results in a short stature phenotype, pituitary and cerebelllar defects and sella turcica malformations. The LHX4 gene may be implicated in the t(1;4)(q25;q32) chromosomal translocation, which is associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The LHX4 gene is also expressed in leukemic cells and may activate leukemogenesis. The human LHX4 gene maps to chromosome 1q25 and encodes a 390 amino acid protein.